Significance of Heat Pipe Technology

  • Heat pipe is the core component of industrial waste heat recovery and cooling systems

  • The critical heat flux of heat pipe determines the efficiency of the system

  • The critical heat flux of quantum heat pipe technology is increased several times

  • Quantum heat pipe technology is a key technology to reduce carbon emissions    

Quantum Heat Pipe Technology

Data of the quantum heat pipe test is taken before ∆T>3℃, going through the 100th repetition   

Quantum Heat Pipe Technology


Quantum heat pipe technology is one of applications of quantum heat transfer technology, which consists of three parts: quantum heat transfer method, quantum medium and composite pipe. The heat transfer working medium is a mixture of quantum medium and deionized water, quantum heat transfer is coupled with heat conduction and convection, which effectively suppresses the Leiden Frost phenomenon and significantly increases the critical heat flux (CHF) of the heat pipe by several times.

Quantum Heat Transfer Mechanism


Quantum medium is composed of different types of dielectric nanoparticles. With a weight ratio of 1:100 in deionized water, the physical properties and closest-packing structure between nanoparticles are self-assembled in liquid to create a many body near field radiative heat transfer system. The quantum, size, interface, surface effects of nanoparticles and the surface phonon polaritons induced by heat couples with electromagnetic waves to generate enhanced radiative heat transfer, which includes many body near field radiative heat transfer (particle surface distance d
<λT via photon tunnelling), many body evanescent field radiative heat transfer (particle surface distance d<20 nm, via both optical and acoustic phonon tunnelling) and phonon heat conduction (when the particles are in close contact). The coupling of enhanced radiative heat transfer between nanoconfined water and particles is defined as quantum heat transfer mode.

Quantum Heat Transfer

Quantum Heat Transfer Characteristics

Only by enhancing radiative heat transfer, the boiling heat transfer coefficient can be improved, the boiling curve be able to left shifted, and  thermal resistance can be reduced with the increasing power.

Quantum Medium

Quantum medium integrates heat transfer working medium, structure, and heat transfer method into one.

Working Medium:
Quantum medium is composed of different types of dielectric nanoparticles.

Heat Transfer Structure
:
The physical properties and closest-packing structure between nanoparticles are self-assembled in liquid to create a many body near field radiative heat transfer system.

Heat Transfer Mode:
The coupling of various heat transfer modes between nanoconfined water and particles is defined as quantum heat transfer mode.

Quantum medium is the carrier of quantum heat pipe technology, and heat pipe uses quantum medium as the working fluid to become the second generation heat pipe.

Quantum Medium at Elevated Temperature

The stability of quantum medium is superior to deionized water during boiling heat transfer.

Sustainable Development of Quantum Medium

Non-toxic

Inorganic nanoparticles, non-volatile, non-flammable, and non-explosive

Eco-friendly, in compliance with regulations

Comply with the most stringent environmental standards of the EU and Japan

No rare-earth elements

Metal, transition metals, non-metal oxides, abundant supply

Sustainable Development

Protection of intellectual property rights, environmental protection and energy saving. Supported worldwide.

Quantum Heat Pipe

In quantum heat pipe technology, the inner surface is considered as a component of quantum medium. Materials or coatings with high emissivity and high loss tangent are selected. This special design is to meet the requirements of quantum heat transfer method, thus enhancing heat transfer performance and reducing cost.

Testing Setup of Heat Pipe

The equipment model and application of the testing setup are listed in the diagram below:

Heat Pipe Preparation

Testing Angle0.3o

Starting Temperature23oC

HeaterTwo parallel electric heating jackets (length of 130mm)  

Coolant 500ml/min. Water Jacket I.D Φ55mm x 140mm

Working MediumQHP: 1g QM + 100ml DI water; DIWHP 

Working MediumDIWHP: 100ml DI water

Heat Pipe MaterialKorea SeAH Changwon Integrated Special Steel (ASTM A312-17)

Chemical composition C Si Mn P S Ni Cr N
% 0.022 0.339 1.659 0.0306 0.0050 9.096 18.282 0.0733

Testing Methodology & Temperature Measuring Points

  • Use the same heat pipe to test CHF of deionized water and quantum medium
  • Set a constant input power (Q) for 12 mins
  • When there is a temperature difference of > 3℃ along the heat pipe or deterioration of heat transfer shown in heater temperature, the q before this point is the CHF.

Calculations of Heat Pipe Technology

Heat transfer area of heat pipe

Working temperature

Working temperature is the heater temperature under water jacket,  the inlet temperature of cooling water is 15℃ and the flow rate is 500ml/min.

Heat flux

Where q is heat flux (W/m^2), Q is input power (W), A is heat transfer area (m2)

Thermal resistance

Where R is thermal resistance (/W), Twe and Twc are the average temperatures of evaporation section and condensation section (), respectively, Q is input power (W).
Testing Results

Testing Results

  • Critical heat flux (CHF) + 2.241MW/m2
  • Left shift the boiling curve with enhanced heat transfer coefficient
  • Heating rate +36%
  • Thermal resistance -31% when input power is 2500W
  • CHF of quantum heat pipe is increased more than 3 times compared to DIWHP

Technical Value of Quantum Heat Pipe

Quantum heat pipe technology is the next generation and upgrading technology of industrial waste heat recovery and heat dissipation equipment!

Application of Quantum Heat Pipe Technology

Quantum medium is the carrier of quantum heat pipe technology.
Heat pipe uses quantum medium mixed in water (1:100) as working fluid is defined as the second generation heat pipe.
As an example, the quantum heat pipe in this test can increase critical heat flux by more than 350% at a cost of only 5 USD.